Deformation of the permutation group
Iwahori–Hecke algebras appear in the representation theory of Lie groups. They are deformations of reflection groups.
A Coxeter group (think either of a group generated by reflections, or the permutation group) is generated by simple reflections obeying $s^2=1$ and braid relations $(st)^m=1$. The Hecke algebra is generated by formal symbols $T_s$, obeying the braid relations and the quadratic relation $$T_s^2=(q-1)T_s+q.$$
This is a deformation of $s^2=1$ which is recovered for $q=1$.
Important features of the Hecke algebra (non-exhaustive):
A lovely introduction to Coxeter groups, the Hecke algebra and Soergel bimodules can be found here (Hecke algebras in Section 3):